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Adverse affects of drugs on saliva and salivary glands
Vidhi Vinayak, Rajeshwari G Annigeri, Hashikesh A Patel, Sachin Mittal
January-June 2013, 5(1):15-20
Saliva is the most valuable oral fluid is critical to the preservation and management of oral health. Saliva containing various organic and inorganic substances provides primary natural protection for teeth and soft tissues in the oral cavity assists in mastication, deglutition and digestion of food. The secretion of saliva can be affected due to various local and systemic causes. However if a patient is taking medication and has altered salivary secretion the differential diagnosis should include the possibility of an adverse drug reaction. The drugs may lead to alteration in the flow rate of saliva, which can be either increased or reduced, however certain drugs have been reported to cause change in the color of the saliva. Several drugs may lead to sialadenitis associated with altered salivary secretion. These symptoms may simulate systemic diseases, Hence oral physicians need to be vigilant in recognizing these adverse drug reactions in the patients and it is incumbent upon the practitioner to try to stay abreast of this ever evolving field especially as it relates to dental therapeutics.
  17,946 1,011 3
Anterior point of reference: Current knowledge and perspectives in prosthodontics
Prince Kumar, Ashish Kumar, Roshni Goel, Ashish Khattar
July-December 2012, 4(2):96-99
The opening and closing mandibular axis is not a purely theoretical postulation, but an absolutely demonstrable biomechanical entity. It is very crucial to accurately record and transfer to articulators for the purpose of maxillofacial rehabilitation. Following the Face bow record and transfer of the mandibular axis to an anatomic articulator, we can then mount the casts so that they open and close on the articulator in the same fashion as the patient's jaws. For this reason one of the fixed factors presented by the patient is taken into the consideration, which if properly considered, can be of inestimable value in all phases of dental treatment. This paper has sought to review the current concepts and practical implications regarding anterior point of reference in prosthodontics.
  8,939 1,495 1
Biological role of lectins: A review
K Kiran Kumar, K Lalith Prakash Chandra, J Sumanthi, G Sridhar Reddy, P Chandra Shekar, BVR Reddy
January-June 2012, 4(1):20-25
Lectins comprise a stracturally vary diverse class of proteins charecterized by their ability to selectively bind carbohydrate moieties of the glycoproteins of the cell surface. Lectins may be derived from plants, microbial or animal sources and may be soluble or membrane bound. Lectins is a tetramer made up of four nearly identical subunits. In human, lectins have been reported to cause food poisoning, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, digestive distress, protein and carbohydrate malabsorption and type I allergies. The present review focuses on the classification, structures, biological significance and application of lectins.
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Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer: A comparative study
Shubha Gurudath, Raghavendra Mahadev Naik, KS Ganapathy, Yadavalli Guruprasad, D Sujatha, Anuradha Pai
July-December 2012, 4(2):114-119
Objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate and compare erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, oral cancer patients, and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: E-SOD and GPx levels were estimated in OSF, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer patients with 25 subjects in each group. The results obtained were compared with the corresponding age-/sex- matched control groups. Results: Statistically significant ( P < 0.001) decrease in E-SOD and GPx levels were observed in OSF, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer groups as compared to the control group. Oral leukoplakia group showed lower levels in comparison with OSF ( P > 0.05). Oral cancer group had the lowest levels amongst the study groups. Conclusion: Imbalance in antioxidant enzyme status may be considered as one of the factors responsible for the pathogenesis of cancer and may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target to reduce the malignant transformation in oral premalignant lesions/conditions.
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Nanotechnology in dentistry: Current achievements and prospects
Ramandeep Singh Gambhir, GM Sogi, Ashutosh Nirola, Rajdeep Brar, Tegbir Sekhon, Heena Kakar
January-June 2013, 5(1):9-14
Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. Dentistry is undergoing yet another change to benefit mankind, this time by transforming itself to the nanodentistry. A variety of nanostructures such as nanorobots, nanospheres, nanofibers, nanorods, etc., have been studied for various applications in dentistry and medicine. Preventive dentistry has also utilized nanodentistry to develop the nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. However, due to insufficient evidence on potential hazards on human health and environment, nanotechnology has become a controversial issue. It is documented that nanomaterials can enter the human body through several routes and can pose a threat to human health by interacting with the DNA. The present article focuses on the current status and the future implications of nanotechnology in dentistry.
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Immunofluorescence and its application in dermatopathology with oral manifestations: Revisited
RS Arvind Babu, P Chandrasekar, K Lalith Prakash Chandra, G Sridhar Reddy, K Krian Kumar, BV Ramana Reddy
January-June 2013, 5(1):2-8
The use of fluorescence probes the field of cell and molecular biology. Immunofluorescence is a molecular method for detection of antigen or antibody in a tissue section/serum sample. Although histopathology remains gold standard for most of auto immune, immune mediated and vesiculo - bullous diseases. Immunofluorescence is an ancillary investigation, which are used to support clinical diagnosis more evidently. This method provides additional diagnostic, prognostic information and remains more specific diagnostic aid for vesiculo - bullous diseases of skin. This review article discusses about immunofluorescence techniques and its application in dermatopathology with oral manifestations.
  6,212 1,011 -
Diagnosis of oral cancer: The past and present
G. Sridhar Reddy, K. Eswara Rao, K. Kiran Kumar, P. Chandra Sekhar, K. Lalith Prakash Chandra, B. Venkata Ramana Reddy
January-June 2014, 6(1):10-16
Oral cancer prevalence in Asia-pacific region is at an alarming stage due to the adverse habits and different socio-economic and cultural status of the population. The better understanding of the disease process at the molecular level has altered the approach of the oral cancer towards early diagnosis of the lesion rather than late stages to reduce the morbidity and mortality. A good number of screening techniques has been time tested for the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral cancer in the initial premalignant stages. Surgical biopsy is a gold standard for diagnosis but this needs professional services, which are impractical at times. Alternative screening methods which are noninvasive, easily performed and highly accurate are the norms for any test to accept as an alternative for histopathology. This article focuses on some screening techniques, which are done either as confirmative or adjuvant for histopathology.
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Management of C-shaped canals: Two case reports
Nilesh Suryakant Kadam, Ida de Noronha de Ataide
January-June 2013, 5(1):37-41
A C-shaped canal with varying configuration is commonly observed in single-rooted mandibular second molars. Cooke and Cox (1979) first documented the C-shaped canal in endodontic literature. The presence of high incidence of transverse anastomoses, lateral canals, and apical deltas makes it difficult to clean and seal the root canal system in these teeth. The main reason for failure in endodontic treatment of mandibular second molars is the inability to detect the presence of C-shaped canals prior to an endodontic therapy. This case report presents successful management of two rare cases of C-shaped canal configurations.
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Apoptosis: Molecular mechanism
Dipak D Ghatage, Suchitra R Gosavi, Sindhu M Ganvir, Vinay K Hazarey
July-December 2012, 4(2):103-107
Cell death is one of the essential processes. Balance between cell division and cell death is of utmost importance for the development and maintenance of multi-cellular organism. Disorders of either process have pathologic consequences and can lead to disturbed embryogenesis, neurodegerative diseases, or the development of cancers. This article reviews the apoptotic as well as anti-apoptotic molecules along with molecular pathways, which may alter in many diseases.
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Giant Sialolith in the Wharton's duct causing sialo-oral fistula: A case report and review of literature
Harish Saluja, Vikrant O Kasat, Uma Mahindra
July-December 2012, 4(2):137-142
Sialolithiasis is the most common salivary gland disease accounting for more than 50% of the cases. Majority of salivary calculi occur in the submandibular gland and its duct. It has male predilection and is often seen in adults. Majority of the calculi are less than 10 mm in size. Calculi > 15 mm in size are considered giant. Giant sialoliths within the parenchyma of the salivary glands are frequently reported in the literature, but they are uncommon in the salivary ducts. The purpose of this article is to report a case of giant sialolith in the Wharton's duct of a 65-year-old male, which had caused sialo-oral fistula. Literature in English language on "giant sialolith in Wharton's duct" is reviewed since 1990. Also etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and management aspects are discussed.
  5,715 274 1
Use of blog as a supplementary study material resource in dentistry: An Indian experience
Thavarajah Rooban, Arunachalam Mohandoss Anusa
January-June 2014, 6(1):46-52
Objective: Social networking sites (SNS) are emerging as an alternate teaching resource. The reach and access characteristics of SNS for a noninstitutional, academic blog in an Indian setting has not been documented and this manuscript aim to address this lacunae. Materials and Methods: A blog for oral histology, an integral basic dental subject and its Facebook promotional page was created. The access characteristics were observed using Google analytics. The Facebook promotional pages of the blog access characteristics are presented. Results: A total of 582 people visited the blog during the study period. Majority of them used Google Chrome from desktop/laptop to access the blog. There were 2723 page visits in all. Visitors from 36 countries and 99 cities across the globe accessed the blog. In all through Facebook, the promotional page reached 36,543 people. The total number of people engaged through Facebook promotion page was 10,757. Conclusion: Access characteristics of the noninstitutional, academic blog have been described for the first time in dentistry. The lessons learnt through this exercise would be helpful in designing e-mentoring courses as well promotional pages of such events in the future. The necessity of making the mentors and students to adapt to e-learning and digital learning resources before drawing such programs is highlighted.
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Tumor markers: An overview
G Suresh Babu, A Naga Supriya, N Govind Raj Kumar, P Swetha
July-December 2012, 4(2):87-95
Tumor markers are substances, usually proteins that are produced by the body in response to cancer growth or by the cancer tissue itself. Measurement or identification of these markers is useful in patient diagnosis and clinical management. An ideal tumor marker should be highly sensitive, specific, accurate, reliable and easily assayable. But none of the tumor markers have all these characteristics. Apart from their limitations, tumor markers are precious tools for screening a healthy and a high risk population for the presence of cancer, making a diagnosis of a specific type of cancer, along with determining the prognosis and monitoring the course of the disease in the patient, at the time of remission or during the course of treatment. This overview discusses and emphasizes currently available tumor markers, their role in cancer and their recent development in cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
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"Dental implant radiology" - Emerging concepts in planning implants
Amara Swapna Lingam, Lavanya Reddy, Vijayalaxmi Nimma, Koppolu Pradeep
July-December 2013, 5(2):88-94
Dental radiology has long played an exciting and critical diagnostic role in dentistry. This has been never truer than now with the rapidly expanding array of imaging modalities. Radiography offers the sole method of (non-surgical) analysis of bone required for implant therapy. The choice of when to image, along with which imaging modality to use, depends on a combination of factors including determination of the bone quality and quantity to establish the most favorable position of implant placement, detection of the presence or absence of pathoses and accessibility at a reasonable cost to the patient. In addition, exposing patients to radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable should always be considered when selecting radiographic examinations. This article, reviews the current concepts on implant planning using different radiographic techniques and their applicability to facilitate the clinician's work in successful implant placement.
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Aneurysmal bone cyst: Rarity in mandible and its ambiguity with Central giant cell granuloma
Anagha Shete, Mahesh Chavan, Nikhil Diwan, Mrinal Shete
January-June 2012, 4(1):51-55
The aneurysmal bone cyst is an uncommon lesion which has been found in most bones of the skeleton, although the majority occur in the long bones and in the spine. It was first described as a distinct clinical entity by Jaffe and Lichenstein in 1942 to describe the ­characteristic "blow-out" of the bone seen in the radiographs of the lesion. In the past, the lesion has been classified as an atypical giant cell tumor or benign bone cyst. We report a case of an aneurysmal bone cyst in an 18-year-old patient who reported with the chief complaint of swelling on the right side of the face since 4 months. It was non-tender, non-fluctuant, and hard in consistency. Radiographic examination revealed a large, expansile, multilocular lesion suggestive of benign odontogenic tumor. Complete enucleation was carried out and the final histopathologic diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst was given.
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Double papilla flap technique for dual purpose
P Mohan Kumar, N Ravindra Reddy, S Sunil Kumar, S Chakrapani
January-June 2012, 4(1):75-78
Marginal tissue recession exposes the anatomic root on the teeth, which gives rise to ­common patient complaints. It is associated with sensitivity, tissue irritation, cervical abrasions, and esthetic concerns. Various types of soft tissue grafts may be performed when recession is deep and marginal tissue health cannot be maintained. Double papilla flap is an alternative technique to cover isolated recessions and correct gingival defects in areas of insufficient attached gingiva, not suitable for a lateral sliding flap. This technique offers the advantages of dual blood supply and denudation of interdental bone only, which is less susceptible to permanent damage after surgical exposure. It also offers the advantage of quicker healing in the donor site and reduces the risk of facial bone height loss. This case report presents the advantages of double papilla flap in enhancing esthetic and functional outcome of the patient.
  4,433 451 1
Liquid dish washing soap: An excellent substitute for xylene and alcohol in hematoxylin and eosin staining procedure
Surekha Ramulu, Anila Koneru, Shamala Ravikumar, Priyadarshini Sharma, D. N. S. V Ramesh, Ramesh Patil
January-June 2012, 4(1):37-42
Aims: Liquid dish washing solution (DWS) was used as a substitute for xylene to dewax tissue sections during hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining. The aim was to test and compare the hypothesis that xylene-ethanol free (XEF) sections deparaffinized with diluted DWS are better than or at par with the conventional H and E sections. Materials and Methods: Fifty paraffin-embedded tissue blocks was included. One section was stained with conventional HandE (group A) and the other with XEF HandE (group B) staining method. Slides were scored for parameters: nuclear, cytoplasmic, clarity, uniformity, and crispness of staining. Z test was used for statistical analysis. For accuracy of diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were tested. Results: Adequate nuclear staining was noted in 94% in group A and 96% in group B, ­adequate cytoplasmic staining in 92% in group A and 86% in group B, clarity in 94% of group A and 96% of group B sections, uniform staining in 92% of group A and 80% of group B sections, crisp stain in 96% of group A and 88% of group B sections, and 94% of group A sections stained adequately for diagnosis as compared with 90% in group B sections. Conclusion: Liquid DWS can be used as an alternative and effective substitute to xylene and ethanol in routine HandE staining procedure.
  4,053 539 1
Burden of oral cancer: An Indian scenario
Lingamaneni Krishna Prasad
July-December 2014, 6(2):77-77
  3,531 1,053 1
Light weight hollow maxillary complete denture: A case series
Laxman Singh Kaira, Richa Singh, Manish Jain, Rakesh Mishra
July-December 2012, 4(2):143-147
Retention, stability and support are the basic principles on which the success of a complete denture relies on. The skill lies in applying these principles efficiently in critical situations. Residual ridge resorption occurs at a three times faster rate in mandibular arch than in the maxillary arch. The severely resorbed maxillary and mandibular edentulous arches that are narrow and constricted with increased interarch space provide decreased support, retention and stability. The consequent weight of the processed complete denture only compromises them further. The severely resorbed jaw can have various treatment options. Extreme resorption of the maxillary denture-bearing area may lead to problems with prosthetic rehabilitation. The advantage of a hollow maxillary or mandibular denture is the reduction of excessive weight of acrylic resin, which normally replaces lost alveolar ridge in the interridge space of the denture wearer. This clinical report describes two case reports of edentulous patients with resorbed ridges where a simplified technique of fabricating a light weight hollow maxillary complete denture was used for the preservation of denture bearing areas.
  3,838 515 -
The role of Aloe vera in various fields of medicine and dentistry
Andey Venkata Subhash, S. Suneela, Ch. Anuradha, S. N. Bhavani, M. Srinivas Minor Babu
January-June 2014, 6(1):5-9
Aloe vera is a cactus like plant that actually is part of the lily family. There are more than 300 varieties of the Aloe plant, but the Aloe barbadensis variety exhibits the best medicinal properties. It has strong antiseptic, antibacterial, fungicidal and virucidal properties. It promotes cell growth and is neurologically calming and acts as a detoxifying agent. Others provide nutritional support and some increase the regenerative potential of tissues while others act with anti-inflammatory responses. This article reviews the uses of the plant in different fields of medicine and dentistry.
  3,431 479 1
Ameloblastoma: Our clinical experience with 68 cases
Benjamin Fomete, Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo, Joseph Osamudiamen Ogbeifun
January-June 2014, 6(1):17-24
Introduction: In this environment, previous workers have reported on the challenges of managing large sized ameloblastoma of the jaws with less than adequate facilities. The aim of this review is to present the management of 68 cases of ameloblastoma with emphasis on surgical care. Materials and Methods: Retrospective survey of case notes of patients with histopathologic diagnosis of ameloblastoma (using the criteria of Barnes et al., 2005) seen between January 2006 and August 2010 at the Maxillofacial Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria was undertaken. Data collected includes histopathological diagnosis, age, gender, clinical information on site of lesion, form of intubation and surgical procedure performed. Results: Out of 94 patients, 68 with histological diagnosis of ameloblastoma (59 mandibular and 9 maxillary) were operated within the study period. The remainder (26) was not treated in hospital. Among 68 patients treated, more were males (38) than females (30), giving a male to female ratio of 1.3:1. The age range was between 14 and 74 years (mean-standard deviation). The duration of the symptoms ranged from 7 months to 24 years, most were follicular ameloblastoma (n = 13) followed by acanthomatous type (n = 7). Endotracheal intubation was the most common (n = 55) followed by fiber optic laryngoscopy (n = 8). The surgical approach most used was extended Risdon with intraoral (n = 24) followed by extended Risdon with lip split and intraoral (n = 17). Segmental resection (en block) formed the bulk of our procedures (n = 22) followed by subtotal mandibulectomy (n = 16). Conclusion: The treatment of ameloblastoma remains controversial. Its destructive nature has left patients with wide defects difficult to reconstruct.
  3,567 284 1
Branchial cleft cyst - A case report with review of literature
Mamatha Boringi, Sharath Chandra Bontha, Milanjeet Kaur, Arshia Shireen
July-December 2014, 6(2):125-128
Branchial cleft cysts are the most common congenital neck masses. The other name for Branchial cleft cyst is Benign cervical lymphoepithelial cyst, which occurs on the lateral aspect of the neck. These cysts originate from remnants of the branchial arches or branchial pouches. The lesions presents as an asymptomatic circumscribed movable mass on the anterior border of the sternocledomastoid muscle. Many cases have been reported at the angle of the mandible, in the submandibular area and even in the pre-auricular and parotid areas. Dentist should be aware of this entity, because it can be easily confused with an odontogenic infection or parotid pathology, especially, if it develops high up in the neck. A solitary, 1 month old swelling on the right submandibular region, in a 13-year-old girl, caused diagnostic dilemma with clinical presentation. Diagnosis was done after all the investigations and treated accordingly.
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Stem cells: Role in medical and dental therapies
Sumit Bhateja
January-June 2012, 4(1):11-14
Recent exciting new discoveries place dental professionals at the forefront of helping their patients benefit from potentially life-saving therapies derived from a patient's own stem cells obtained from deciduous or permanent teeth. The great hope is that suitable stem cells, produced in large quantities through cell culture methods and injected into failing tissues and organs, will produce fresh, replacement cells to take over from lost or damaged ones. This ability to grow and regenerate tissues is the focus of the emerging field of ­personalized medicine which uses a patient's own stem cells for biologically compatible therapies and individually tailored treatments. This review focuses on the role of oral physicians in the recovery and use of the stem cell in both dental and medical regenerative therapies.
  3,227 486 -
Mucous membrane pemphigoid with exclusive gingival involvement: Report of a case and review of literature
Shamimul Hasan, Bhumika Kapoor, Ayesha Siddiqui, Himangi Srivastava, Sifat Fatima, Yusra Akhtar
January-June 2012, 4(1):64-69
According to Sir William Osler, Mouth is the mirror of the body which reflects systemic ­diseases. The oral mucosa may be affected by a variety of mucocutaneous diseases and oral lesions may occur first or very early in several mucocutaneous disorders. The erosive gingival lesions associated with vesiculobullous diseases such as lichen planus, cicatricial pemphigoid, and pemphigus vulgaris have been collectively referred to as "Desquamative gingivitis" (DG). Gingival desquamation is a clinical sign in which the gingiva appears reddish, painful, glazed and friable with destruction of the epithelium. This gingival desquamation is due to various disease processes in gingiva. The disease process may be a localized disease of gingiva or a systemic disease which manifests in the gingiva. It is important to be aware of this rare clinical entity so as to distinguish DG from plaque induced gingivitis which is an extremely common condition, easily recognized and treated daily by the dental surgeon. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of these lesions may greatly diminish or reverse disease progression. Here by, we present a case of mucous membrane pemphigoid presenting as gingival desquamation in a 45 year old female. Our patient presented with generalized erythematous gingiva and gingival desquamation involving the free, attached and marginal gingiva of left maxillary and mandibular dentition. However, other mucosal and skin involvement was not appreciated in the present case. Thorough history, clinical examination, histopathology and immunofluorescence studies helped us to arrive at the diagnosis of this rare sub-epithelial blistering disorder.
  3,287 339 -
Orofacial manifestation of Sturge-Weber syndrome: A case report with review
Mandeep Kaur
January-June 2012, 4(1):70-74
Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), sometimes referred to as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a rare congenital neurological and skin disorder. It is one of the phakomatoses which is often associated with port-wine stains of the face, glaucoma, seizures, mental retardation, and ipsilateral leptomeningeal angioma. It is characterized by proliferation of arteries of the brain, resulting in multiple angiomas that occur on the same side due to arteriovenous malformations. Normally, only one side of the head is affected and mainly results from the errors in both the mesodermal and ectodermal development. Here, we report a rare case of SWS having oral and facial manifestations, where an 8-year-old boy had actually come for treatment of swollen gums, and on examination, we found that he had typical signs and symptoms of this rare developmental anomaly. The main purpose of this publication is to make the clinician aware of the oral manifestations that are seen in the patients with SWS and also to lay stress on the importance of radiographs in the diagnosis of this syndrome.
  3,354 257 1
Surgical correction of class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult patient
Ramakrishnan Balachander, Kandapalanivel Karthik, Anilkumar Katta, Kandasamy Rajasigamani
January-June 2014, 6(1):58-61
Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting vertical maxillary excess along with class II skeletal deformity. A cosmetic correction was achieved by superior repositioning of maxilla with LeFort I osteotomy and augmentation genioplasty, along with orthodontic treatment. The patient's facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion
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