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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 67-117

Online since Monday, January 8, 2018

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New groups of drugs suspected in the medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) Highly accessed article p. 67
Mel Mupparapu, Sunday O Akintoye
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Ethics in research and publication p. 69
Elizabeth Joshua
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The expression of Bcl-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma—A review p. 71
Jayakumar Arumugam, Nadeem Jeddy, Ananthalakshmi Ramamurthy, Radhika Thangavelu
Currently, oral cancer is one of the most alarming health problems facing mankind. More than 90% of all oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). BCL-2 proteins are one of the most prominent anti-apoptotic proteins expressed in OSCC. They contribute to cancer development and mediate resistance to current anticancer treatments. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the expression of Bcl-2 in OSCC. This article emphasizes the importance of Bcl-2 expression as a prognostic indicator in OSCC.
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A brief description about the evolution of the masticatory complex, its causes and future effects: A review p. 75
Imon Pal, Bikramaditya Ghosh, Sujatha Ramachandra
The diversity of mammalian teeth remains a major attraction both scientifically and aesthetically. Bizarre-shaped teeth are a good reminder of both evolutionary flexibility and the precision of the developmental control mechanism. With time and adaptation to changing environments, several changes have occurred over a span of million years. These adaptations resulted in both positive and negative changes. The review article was written after an initial thorough search of both online and offline databases regarding articles related to evolution and craniofacial evolution. All available information related to the field of dentistry was compiled together. Ethical clearance was not necessary due to the nature of the study. This article provides a brief review on the changes in the teeth and jaw over the course of evolution and the factors that triggered it. A question arises whether, keeping the past in mind and seeing the present, we can predict the future changes that might occur in the human dentition.
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Detection of molecular biomarkers as a diagnostic tool in the planning and progression of orthodontic treatment p. 80
Aditi Gaur, Sandhya Maheshwari, Sanjeev K Verma
Orthodontic treatment focuses on providing patient care at the appropriate timing to utilize the growth potential for best results. It involves growth modification of the craniofacial region along with alveolar bone remodeling during tooth movement. The dynamic process of bone metabolism involves the release of biochemical mediators in the circulation. These molecules are indicative of the bone remodeling activity of osteoblastic deposition and osteoclastic resorption. Such biomarkers when detectable in the systemic circulation highlight the skeletal maturity of orthodontic patients and when detected locally as, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva, indicate the progression of orthodontically induced alveolar bone remodeling. Assessment of molecular biomarkers of bone remodeling in the body fluids would aid the clinicians in planning orthodontic treatment at the ideal timing and evaluating the advent of the treatment.
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Estimation of CCL2/MCP-1 levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid in periodontal health, disease and after treatment – A clinico biochemical study p. 85
Dandu S M Babu, Sathrawada Poornodaya, Kotu A Sai, Deepa Anumala, Dandu S S P Reddy, Nagireddy R Reddy
Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in periodontal disease (PD) progression and also to investigate the effect of periodontal therapy on MCP-1 concentration in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Materials and Methods: Clinical parameters including gingival index, pocket probing depth, and clinical attachment level were recorded for 60 subjects, who divided into four groups. Group I (healthy, n = 20), Group II (gingivitis, n = 20), Group III (chronic periodontitis, n = 20), and Group IV (after treatment group, n = 20). Scaling and root planning (SRP) was performed, and GCF and serum were collected initially and after 12 weeks of treatment. MCP-1 levels were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean MCP-1 concentration in GCF and serum was found to be the highest in Group III, and significantly defers from Groups I, II, and IV. The results of present study also suggest that MCP-1 levels increased progressively in GCF and serum from healthy to periodontitis subjects and levels decreased considerably after SRP. Conclusion: As the PD progresses, there is a substantial increase of MCP-1 concentrations in serum and GCF. The data indicate that high GCF and serum levels of MCP-1 are at a significantly greater risk for the progression of periodontitis. However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
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Can exposure to acidic beverages following the application of fluoride varnish cause changes in the amount of fluoride release? an in vitro study p. 91
Bhaswati Chakraborty, Arathi Rao, Reshma K Chandra, Ramya Shenoy, Baranya S Suprabha
Introduction: Fluoride varnishes are found to be effective in the prevention of early childhood caries. Postvarnish application, the instructions provided by the manufacturer seem to be inadequate because they do not mention the type of beverages which can be consumed after the specified time, considering the widespread consumption of soft acidic drinks in children. Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride released from fluoride varnishes − Fluorprotector and Bifluorid in artificial saliva and acidic conditions. Materials and Methods: Polymethyl methacrylate blocks were painted with fluoride varnish and placed into artificial saliva for 30 min. Blocks were then placed in either 1% citric acid or 0.3% citric acid solutions for 30 min with the solutions being replaced every 5 min. The solution was analyzed for fluoride content. Results and Conclusion: The statistical tests applied were repeated measures of analysis of variance and student’s t-test. The level of significance was kept at P < 0.05. Significant difference in fluoride release was noted in different acidic mediums. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes varied considerably and also depended on the dissolution medium.
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The wetting ability of root canal sealers after using various irrigants p. 95
Sanjyot Mulay, Khushbu Ajmera, Hansa Jain
Aims: To evaluate and compare the wettability of root canal sealers after using various irrigants. To determine wettability, we evaluated the contact angle, because lower the contact angle, better the wettability. Green tea has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; therefore, it was used as an irrigant. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two freshly extracted, human, single-rooted teeth were used in the study. The roots were split into 144 dentin sections. The specimens were divided into the following four groups having 36 samples each: Group I—sodium hypochlorite 3%, Group II—chlorhexidine (CHX) 2%, Group III—green tea extract, and Group IV (control)—normal saline. The groups were further subdivided based on the sealer used. Results: There was highly significant difference among the mean contact angle values of zinc oxide eugenol sealer, AH Plus sealer, and MTA Fillapex sealer using 2% CHX (P < 0.01). The least contact angle was observed with green tea as root canal irrigant and MTA as root canal sealer (25.20 ± 4.00). Conclusion: The type of irrigant used had an influence on the contact angle of sealer. Among all the irrigants and sealers used in this study, the least contact angle was observed with green tea root canal irrigant and MTA Fillapex sealer.
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Tooth morphometry and the pattern of palatal rugae among monozygotic and dizygotic twins in India p. 99
Swagatika Panda, Alkananda Sahoo, Neeta Mohanty, Sujit R Sahoo, Ramanarayanan Subramaniam
Introduction: A stronger correlation of physical traits among monozygotic (MZ) twins than dizygotic (DZ) twins indicates predominant contribution by genetic factors than environmental factors. Exploring the degree of resemblance in tooth morphometry and the pattern of rugae among twins shall aid in forensic identification. Aim and Objective: To find out the degree of correlation in tooth morphometry and the palatal rugae pattern among MZ and DZ twins. Materials and Methods: The maximum coronal mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of the maxillary teeth excluding the second and third molars in 21 pairs of MZ and 12 pairs of DZ twins along with a MZ triplet were recorded using digital calipers calibrated to 0.01 mm. The dimensions of the teeth based on the number, shape, size, and the unification palatal rugae pattern among twin pairs were analyzed and recorded. Results: Our results suggest a stronger correlation of tooth dimension among MZ than DZ twins, which differs for individual maxillary tooth. There may be a separate set of genes responsible for controlling the mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions. The maxillary canine and maxillary premolars do show the least amount of genetic variability. The results in our study provide remarkable evidence regarding the existence of mirror imaging in tooth dimension as well as the number and shape of the palatal rugae. Conclusion: This first of its kind study in the Indian population suggests a remarkable similarity with regard to the tooth’s size and uniqueness of the palatal rugae pattern among MZ and DZ twins, which suggests their strong inheritability potential. This may be useful as additional tools for zygosity determination along with other dental traits. The significant evidence of mirror imaging of tooth dimension and rugae shall definitely contribute to the concept of development of human body.
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Prevention of collapse of the contralateral half of the mandible after hemimandibulectomy: Our experience in a low-resource center p. 106
Charles E Anyanechi, Birch D Saheeb
Background: The management of pathologic lesions of the mandible includes plans for the reconstruction of the resultant defect to give the patients optimal surgical reconstructive and prosthetic results. Objective: To evaluate the degree of deviation of the contralateral half of the mandible toward the surgical defect after hemimandibulectomy and intermaxillary fixation (IMF). Patients and Methods: This is a 9-year prospective single-blinded clinical study conducted at the Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of our institution. Information obtained from the patients included age, gender, type of mandibular lesion, method of wound closure, duration of IMF, temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) symptom(s), and the deviation toward the surgical defect of the remnant contralateral half of the mandible, measured in centimeter at maximum mouth opening. Results: Ninety-six patients, unevenly distributed according to their duration of tolerance of IMF, were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 29 to 57 years with an overall mean age of 42.6 ± 5.1 years. There were 72 males and 24 females with a male-to-female ratio of 3:1 (P = 0.001). The lesions that were extirpated were all benign, and ameloblastoma was the most common tumor (P = 0.001). The shorter the duration of IMF, the greater the deviation of the mandibular mid-line toward the surgical defect (P = 0.001). Conclusion: This study shows that there is a deviation of mid-line of the residual mandible toward the surgical defect after hemimandibulectomy, even after its immobilization with IMF for 4–12 weeks. IMF is still useful in the prevention of mandibular collapse after hemimandibulectomy.
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A biochemical study to assess and compare salivary magnesium levels in periodontal health and diseases p. 111
Teertha J Shetty, Sameer A Zope, Girish Suragimath, Siddhartha Varma, Keshava Abbayya, Vishwajeet Kale
Background: Chronic magnesium (Mg) deficiency has been associated with a number of chronic systemic diseases, including osteoporosis, hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease. Mg may also alter the course and outcome of the periodontal disease. Aim: To evaluate salivary Mg levels in healthy individuals and patients with chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis (CP). Materials and Methods: A total of 150 individuals were selected randomly, which included both males and females with age range between 20 and 45 years. Periodontal status was recorded using the following parameters − gingival index, plaque index, oral hygiene index − simplified and clinical attachment loss. Following periodontal examination, individuals were divided into three groups as follows: Group 1: (n = 50) − comprised of healthy individuals; Group 2: (n = 50) − comprised of patients with gingivitis; Group 3: (n = 50) − comprised of patients with CP. The unstimulated saliva samples from the study individuals were collected and subjected to the estimation of salivary Mg levels using Abcam’s Mg assay kit and Erba EM 360 fully automated auto analyzer (Erba Diagnostic, Mannheim, Germany). Results: In this study, there was an increase in salivary Mg level with increasing severity of the periodontal disease. A significant increase in salivary Mg levels was recorded in patients with gingivitis (1.66 ± 0.28 mg/dl) and periodontitis (2.05 ± 0.66 mg/dl) as compared to healthy individuals (1.35 ± 0.28 mg/dl). Conclusion: Salivary Mg does not play an active role in the modulation of periodontal disease process and, hence, cannot be used as a reliable biomarker associated with periodontal health and disease.
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Florid expansile cemento-osseous dysplasia of the jaws: Cone beam computed tomography study and review of the literature p. 114
Steven R Singer, Adriana G Creanga, Rutvi Vyas, Mel Mupparapu
An interesting case of florid expansile cemento-osseous dysplasia (FECOD) of the maxilla and mandible in a 36-year-old female is being presented. The patient presented for consultation for orthognathic surgery and was unaware of these lesions. Upon clinical and radiographic examination, including cone beam computed tomography, massive cemento-osseous lesions in all quadrants were observed. The radiographic appearance of the lesions was consistent with cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD), the key difference being extreme expansion. Expansion, although not a new phenomenon, is present in all quadrants. These radiographic features suggest a variation of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia and is more aptly termed FECOD. This name is proposed for its diagnostic relevance based on the radiographic features. As with similar CODs, unless the lesions are disfiguring, conservative management is the preferred approach. Biopsy was not indicated unless there are additional associated complications. A detailed review of the pertinent literature was undertaken.
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