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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-December 2019
Volume 11 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 71-115

Online since Wednesday, January 29, 2020

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EDITORIAL  

Tobacco Cessation: Right for the Dental Office p. 71
Steven R Singer, Mel Mupparapu
DOI:10.4103/jofs.jofs_138_19  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Genomic Alterations Landscape in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Head and Neck Highly accessed article p. 73
Immanuel Joseph, Thavarajah Rooban, Joshua Elizabeth, Umadevi Krishnamohan Rao, Kannan Ranganathan
DOI:10.4103/jofs.jofs_40_19  
Introduction: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) accounts for 1% of all head and neck cancers and 10% to 22% of all malignant tumors of the salivary glands. ACC is associated with MYB- nuclear factor I/B-type (NFIB) gene fusion in about 50% of the cases. The genetic alteration (GA) landscape of ACC of head and neck region in this aspect has not been much studied, mainly due to small cohorts. We aim to describe the GA landscape of MYB-NFIB gene fusions, copy number alterations, and mutations of the related gene MYBL1 in human ACC by studying its association with regard to demographics and histopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: Using the GA data of ACC from a peer-reviewed web portal, we studied the presence of MYB-NFIB gene fusion with respect to age and gender distribution, site involved (major/minor salivary gland, lacrimal gland, cancer metastasis, others), histopathological diagnosis, perineural invasion (PNI), and the overall number of mutations. Descriptive statistics and Chi square test were performed. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23. The mutation counts between the type of gene fusions involved and the gender of patients was studied using analysis of variance tests. Results: Of the 214 reported ACC cases, 65 (30%) cases had MYB-NFIB fusion alone, 15 (7%) other had rare fusions, and 12 (6%) other had GAs. Perineural invasion was found to be associated with MYB gene fusion cases with or without copy number alterations (P = 0.022). The number of mutations were significantly associated with the gender of patient (P = 0.003) and NFIB gene fusions (P = 0.001). The other factors had no statistical significance. Conclusion: MYB-NFIB gene fusion and associated GA correlates with perineural involvement in ACC.
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Effects of Vitamin D in Alveolar Bone Remodeling on Osteoblast Numbers and Bone Alkaline Phosphatase Expression in Pregnant Rats During Orthodontic Tooth Movement p. 79
Puteri Nazirah B Megat Badarul Hisham, Ida B Narmada, Alida Alida, Dwi Rahmawati, Alexander P Nugraha, Nurul A. R Putranti
DOI:10.4103/jofs.jofs_10_19  
Introduction: The vitamin D effect on orthodontic tooth movement in pregnant women remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the post administration of vitamin D effect on osteoblast numbers and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) expression in the tension side in pregnant rats during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vivo animal experiment; 28 healthy female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) (16–20 weeks’ old) were divided into four groups, with or without intramuscular administration of vitamin D, which were to be observed after 7 and 14 days. Pregnancy was induced with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. Nickel–titanium coil springs with 30 g/mm2 of force were connected between the right maxillary incisors and the right maxillary first molar. After 7 and 14 days, the animals were sacrificed. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance with post hoc test (P < 0.05) was performed based on the results of a Levene’s test and a Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (P > 0.05). Results: The highest number of osteoblasts occurred in the C-7 group with mean ± standard deviation of 20.54 ± 8.4. Statistically significant differences were seen in decreased osteoblast number between groups (P = 0.001, P < 0.05). The highest BALP expression was in the E-7 group (3.40 ± 1.625). Nevertheless, no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups (P = 0.240, P > 0.05) in the expression of BALP. Conclusion: The post administration of vitamin D during orthodontic tooth movement in pregnant rats produced no significant enhancement on BALP expression and osteoblast number.
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Cytomorphometric Evaluation of Oral Exfoliated Cells − Its Correlation With Age of an Individual p. 84
T. Radhika, Serab Hussain, S. Adithyan, Nadeem Jeddy, Sai Lakshmi
DOI:10.4103/jofs.jofs_101_19  
Introduction: Age is a vital tool in assessing the mental and physical growth of an individual. Exfoliative cytology, a non-invasive procedure, also has its potential implication in age assessment of an individual. This study aims to correlate and compare the average cell size from oral buccal smears of individuals of varying age groups using cytomorphometric analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 buccal smears were collected from normal individuals, dividing them into five age groups (Group 1: 10–20, Group 2: 21–30, Group 3: 31–40, Group 4: 41–50, Group 5: 50 and above). The collected smear samples were stained using papanicolau stain. The average sizes of the cells were measured using Dewinter’s image analysis software. Results: Cytomorphometry revealed a decrease in the average cell size as age increases. Analysis using Bonferonni and Post Hoc tests showed statistically significant decrease in the average cell size (P < 0.005). Conclusion: Cytomorphometric evaluation of exfoliated oral cells proves reliable tool for correlation of age. Cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa serves a potential alternative non-invasive procedure in evaluation and correlation of age of an individual compared to the other screening modalities, which are usually either invasive or expensive.
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Targeted Screening Programme For Early Detection Of Oral Malignant And Potentially Malignant Lesions Using The Oral Rub And Rinse Technique Among Truck Drivers in Dakshina Kannada District − A Cross-Sectional Study p. 89
Audrey Madonna D'Cruz, Pushparaja Shetty, Urvashi Ashwin Shetty
DOI:10.4103/jofs.jofs_84_19  
Introduction: Early detection of oral malignant and potentially malignant disorders is very important in reducing morbidity and mortality. Truck drivers are transport workers who transport goods over long distances in trucks are at a very “high risk” due to various factors. The aim of this study was to detect potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions using the oral rub and rinse technique among truck drivers in Dakshina Kannada. Materials and Methods: An oral cancer screening program among truck drivers was conducted in Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka. Data regarding socio-demographic details, history of tobacco use were collected. Oral cancer screening was carried out. Exfoliative cytology was done using the oral rub and rinse technique if red/white lesions were present and biopsies were taken in case of ulcerated lesions. Descriptive statistics was used in this study in the form of number and percentage. Results: A total of 964 subjects were screened for potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions. Most of the patients (83%) were current tobacco users. Of the 964 subjects, 148 had red/white lesions. Results of exfoliative cytology showed that 23% smears were Class I, 24% were Class II, 31% were Class III, and 16% were Class IV smears; 6% smears were unsatisfactory. Tissue biopsy was taken for 23 patients with ulcerated lesions − 2 were confirmed for oral squamous cell carcinoma and 21 had dysplasia. Conclusion: High-risk targeted screening for oral cancer can help identify oral precancerous lesions at an early stage.
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Study on oral microbial flora and antibiotic sensitivity pattern among oral cancer patients in a tertiary cancer care center p. 93
Anjali Kanadan, Arun Anatapadma Bhagwath, Bastitian Thattil Sebastian, Parthiban Rudrapathy, Selvamani Manickam
DOI:10.4103/jofs.jofs_68_19  
Introduction: In recent times, the interaction between cancer and the microbiome has been emphasized. Most studies have focused on the gut microbiota and gastric cancer. However, more attention should be paid on oral microflora as the gastrointestinal tract begins in the oral cavity. The aim of this study is to isolate and identify aerobic microbes present in oral cancer patients and identify their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics profiles in oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in a randomly selected cohort of oral cancer patients at Malabar cancer center Thalasseri for a period of 1 year. Samples were collected from oral cancer patients and subjected for microbiological examination for colony characters, morphology on Gram stain as well for antibiotic sensitivity for different drugs. Results: Of the 96 oral cancer patients, isolated bacterial colonies showed a mixture of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Streptococcus species (n = 28) were seen in high number in case of gram-positive organisms, while in gram-negative bacteria (GNB) Klebsiella species (n = 13) was high in number. Among the control group (n = 25), Neisseria flava (n = 11) was the predominant species. All oral cancer patients showed 80% of susceptibility to every class of antibiotics used. Conclusion: This study showed 80% of susceptibility to every class of commonly used antibiotics. But results are not similar in other parts of world. Antimicrobial resistance is emerging among cancer patients. Advancement and monitoring of the microbiota will improve our understanding of the role of the microbiota in carcinogenesis and open new perceptions for future therapeutic and prophylactic modalities.
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Computer-Assisted Learning vs. Small Group Tutorials in Periodontal Charting: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Malaysian Dental School p. 100
B.S. S. Thomas, M. Alexander, M. H. NurSulwana, H. Y.Y. Yap
DOI:10.4103/jofs.jofs_115_19  
Introduction: Dental education, like most fields of healthcare education, embraces all three domains of learning − cognitive, psychomotor and affective. The aim of this study was to determine whether computer-assisted learning (CAL) can replace face-to-face teaching with reference to acquiring theoretical as well as practical skills in periodontal charting in dentistry. Material and Methods: A total of 70 year 4 dental students were randomly assigned to CAL and Small Group Tutorial (SGT) groups. Following the sessions, they underwent theoretical knowledge as well as practical skills evaluation tests. Pre- and post-tests Confidence Log Questionnaires (CLQ) were completed by the students. Results: CAL and SGT were equally effective from the theoretical knowledge aspect. SGT group did better in some aspects of practical skills acquisition. Conclusion: There was no statistical difference in the theoretical knowledge acquired by the different methods, whereas small group teaching was more effective in gaining certain psychomotor skills in periodontal charting, leading us to conclude that face-to-face teaching seems to be having an upper hand when it comes to teaching periodontal charting.
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Caldesmon Expression in Metastatic and Non-Metastatic Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma—A Mediator of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition p. 105
B. Sekar, R. Saranyan, R. Madhavan Nirmal, Indrapriyadharshini Kumaresan, Ambika Murugesan, L. Kamaraj
DOI:10.4103/jofs.jofs_140_19  
Introduction: For the past decades long-term survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients remain unchanged which provides a wide platform for research. Caldesmon (CaD), an actin-myosin binding protein, has a contributing role in cytoskeleton modulation and cell motility. The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of CaD in metastatic and non-metastatic OSCC and to discuss the possible role of CaD in epithelial mesenchymal transition. Materials and Methods: Archival blocks of 25 metastatic and 25 non-metastatic OSCC patients are included where CaD expression is evaluated immunohistochemically. Results: Overall expression and staining intensity of CaD were statistically significant in different grades of metastatic and non-metastatic OSCC. In summary, high expression of CaD is observed in increasing grades of OSCC but the metastatic potential of the tumour doesn’t seem to have any relation with CaD.
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“Estimation of Midkine Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum in Periodontal Health, Disease and After Treatment” − A Clinico Biochemical Study p. 110
Dandu Siva Sai Prasad Reddy, Vemuri Vineetha, Dodla Alekya, M. D. Sameevulla, Nagireddy Ravindra Reddy, D. S.Madhu Babu
DOI:10.4103/jofs.jofs_149_19  
Introduction: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of Midkine in periodontal disease progression and also to investigate the effect of periodontal therapy on Midkine concentration in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Materials and Methods: Clinical parameters including gingival index, pocket probing depth, clinical attachment level were recorded for 60 subjects divided into four equal groups Group I (healthy), Group II (gingivitis), Group III (chronic periodontitis), and Group IV (post treatment group). Scaling and root planning were performed and GCF and serum were collected initially and after 8 weeks of treatment. Midkine levels were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The mean Midkine concentration in GCF and serum was found to be the highest in group III, and significantly defers from group-I, II, and IV. The results of present study also suggest that Midkine levels increased progressively in GCF and serum from healthy to periodontitis subjects and levels decreased considerably after scaling and root planning. Conclusion: As the periodontal disease progresses, there is a substantial increase of Midkine concentrations in serum and GCF. The data indicate that high GCF and serum levels of Midkine are at significantly greater risk for progression of periodontitis However, controlled, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm this possibility.
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