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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-June 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-65

Online since Wednesday, June 14, 2017

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Implant-related neuropathic pain: Prevention is the key p. 1
Steven R Singer, Muralidhar Mupparapu
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Personalized medicine in dentistry Highly accessed article p. 3
Pushpa S Pudakalkatti, Abhinav Subhashchandra Baheti, Sanjeevini A Hattarki, Soumya S Kambali
Personalized medicine is a branch of medicine that proposes customization of healthcare in which decisions and treatment are tailored according to individual patient needs. The field of personalized medicine relies on genetic information, proteomic information and clinical patient characteristics to individualize treatment. With advances in genetics, proteomics, pharmacogenetics and knowledgeable patient population, the opportunity exists to deliver never before levels of personalized care. Although general dentists may consider personalized medicine a concept for the future, the reality is that its direct application to everyday dentistry is closer than one might think. Use of personalized medicine in dentistry, especially in periodontology is progressing rapidly, and dentist should consider this approach while treating patients. Google and PubMed search was done to select articles for present review. Total 17 articles were used to compile information.
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A review on tumor immunology p. 7
Sri Lalitha Kaja, S. V. N. Sasi Kiran, Kiran Kumar Kattapagari, Ravi Teja Chitturi, S Deepika Chowdary, Baddam Venkata Ramana Reddy
The ability of immune system to detect and destroy the altered/abnormal cells may inhibit the development of various cancers. The immune system had been proposed as a tactic in sustaining nonneoplastic state and also for the development of immunotherapy against cancer. Although the immune system exerts a protective role, under certain circumstances, it could be damaging in terms of modulating the oncogenic process. The failure of host's immunological responses against tumor growth and dissemination implicated that both immunologic and nonimmunologic factors may work together to affect tumorigenesis. Hence, understanding the aspects pertaining to tumor immunology which deals with the complex interactions between the host's immune system and neoplasm is essential. The current review focuses on the aspects concerned with tumor immunology, steps involved, and cancer immunotherapy as a probable therapeutic tool.
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Correlation between morphological facial index and canine relationship in adults − An anthropometric study p. 16
Himanshu Trivedi, Aftab Azam, Ragni Tandon, Pratik Chandra, Rohit Kulshrestha, Ankit Gupta
Aim: The aim of this study was to correlate the morphological facial index and canine relationship in adults. Materials and Methods: The research was conducted on 1000 randomly selected subjects of Indo-Aryan North Indian population (563 males and 437 females), aged 18–40 years. The parameters were morphological facial height and morphological facial width. The standard, spreading caliper with its scale was used for the measurement of facial parameters. Canine relationship was observed intra-orally with the subjects seated on the dental chair. Results: Euryprosopic facial type (53.2%) was most common in majority of the subjects followed by mesoprosopic (21.6%), hypereuryprosopic (19%), and leptoprosopic (5.6%), and the least common was hyperleptoprosopic (0.6%). The canine relation was mostly class I in both the genders, but females showed a higher value of class II and class III canine relations. Conclusion: The overall majority owned the euryprosopic facial type, and there was no significant association between facial morphologic types and canine relationship in both the genders in different age groups at either side. The canine relationship association with facial morphologic type was significant only for the left side.
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Chewing side preference - Impact on facial symmetry, dentition and temporomandibular joint and its correlation with handedness p. 22
Shreyasi Tiwari, Supriya Nambiar, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan
Introduction: Habitual unilateral chewing develops subconsciously and serves as an example for lateral preference. This study aims to assess the possible impact of chewing side preference to facial asymmetry, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and oral hygiene and existence of any link between the preferred chewing side (PCS) and handedness. Materials and Methods: A 2-month cross-sectional (observational) study was performed on 76 healthy dentate subjects [24 males (31.6%) and 52 females (68.4%)] with a mean age of 20.8 ± 1.5 years who participated in this study according to the selection criteria. Results: A total of 75 subjects out of 76 (98.6%) were observed to have a PCS. Out of them, 38 chewed on their right and 37 on the left side. Of the 74 right-handed subjects, 48.6% chewed on the right, 50% on the left and 1.4% chewed equally on both the sides. Conclusion: Chewing side preference has a detrimental effect on the TMJ of the corresponding side and is also related to lateral facial asymmetry, which suggests that examination and recording of chewing side preference merit consideration in routine dental examination and treatment planning.
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Comparative evaluation of Nano-hydroxyapatite and casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on the remineralization potential of early enamel lesions: An in vitro study p. 28
Anshul Sharma, Arathi Rao, Ramya Shenoy, Baranya S Suprabha
Background: Benefits of remineralizing agents in a wide variety of formulations have been proved beneficial in caries management. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) nanocomplex has been recommended and used as remineralizing agent. Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) is one of the most biocompatible and bioactive material having wide range of application in dentistry, but does it excel better compared to CPP-ACP. Aims: To evaluate and compare the remineralizing efficiency of the paste containing hydroxyapatite and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate. Settings and Design: The study was an in vitro single blinded study with lottery method of randomization approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Materials and methods: 30 non carious premolar teeth. The teeth were demineralized and divided into 2 groups and subjected to remineralization. The samples were analysed for surface hardness and mineral content. Statistical Analysis: Student t’ test and repeated measures of ANOVA was applied. Results: Average hardness in Nano-hydroxyapatite group increased to 340 ± 31.70 SD and 426 ± 50.62 SD for 15 and 30 days respectively and that of (CPP–ACP), 355.83 ± 38.55 SD and 372.67 ± 53.63 SD. The change in the hardness values was not statistically significant with P value of 0.39 (P > 0.05). Calcium and Phosphorous levels increased in both the groups but was not significant. Conclusion: Both the agents used are effective in causing remineralization of enamel. Nano-hydroxyapatite is more effective as compared to Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate, in increasing the Calcium and Phosphorus content of enamel, and this effect is more evident over a longer treatment period. Key Message: Remineralizing agents are a boon for caries management. With the advent of many formulations it is difficult to clinically select the agent. This study compares the remineralizing potential of Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex and Nano-hydroxyapatite and found that both are effective as remineralizing agents.
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An inter-correlative study on clinico-pathological profile and different predisposing factors of oral leukoplakia among the ethnics of Darjeeling, India p. 34
Krishnendu Mondal, Rupali Mandal, Badal C Sarkar, Vaswati Das
Context: Idiopathic leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of oral cavity. Owing to the year-wide cold environment in Darjeeling, here the indigenous ethnic people practice a distinct addiction pattern that strongly predisposes them to oral leukoplakia. Aims: The purpose of the present study was to assess the clinico-pathological profile and various predisposing factors involved in oral leukoplakia, and to correlate its exfoliative cytological appearances with the histopathological diagnoses. Materials and Methods: A total of 53 patients were clinically diagnosed with oral leukoplakia during the study period. All information − clinical data pertaining to the patient and the patch, their personal history including addiction and diet, and the cyto-histopathological features of the lesion − was evaluated and methodically compared with each other using the statistical software, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. Results: The female-dominated cohort was chiefly affected with thin leukoplakia (67.9%) involving their buccal mucosa (66.1%). Smokeless tobacco (49.1%) was the most popular addiction. Alcoholism and smoking, increasing daily frequency of tobacco misuse, and verrucous and granular leukoplakias were significantly associated with dysplastic transformation (P < 0.05). Out of 16 (30.2%) dysplastic lesions, exfoliative cytology correctly diagnosed only six (11.3%) cases with a sensitivity of 37.5% only. Conclusion: Verrucous and granular variants are the most detrimental forms of oral leukoplakia. Dysplastic transformation frequently occurs in people addicted to smoking and alcoholism, and verrucous and granular leukoplakia. Lastly, exfoliative cytology poorly predicts the dysplastic evolution within a leukoplakic patch.
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Pattern of the head and the neck cancer in two geographically and socioeconomically different countries p. 43
Somayyeh Azimi, Hamed Mortazavi, Marc Tennant, Estie Kruger, Babak Rezaei, Jamileh B Taheri, Mohammad R Tarahhomi
Context: The differences in frequency of cancer among the less developed and the more developed regions continue to remain as an important problem for service planning and international action against cancers of the head and the neck. Aim: This study compares distribution of cancers of the head and the neck between two similar-sized populations from the west of Iran and Western Australia. Setting and Design: In this retrospective study, de-identified data were collected for a 10-year period from patients diagnosed with head and the neck cancers. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the Western Australia Cancer Registries and from major hospitals in the west of Iran. Age at diagnosis, sex, and site code were included in the data sheet. Descriptive analysis was used to describe the basic features, means (±standard deviation) were reported, and tests of significance were used as appropriate. Results: In Iran, cancer of the lip, followed by cancer of the major salivary gland, and cancer of the tongue were the three most frequent types of cancers, whereas in Australia, the most frequent types of cancer were cancer of the lip followed by cancers of the tongue and the tonsil. Distribution of malignancy by site among the patients belonging to different ages indicated that cancer of the lip was the most frequent cancer in both Iran and Australia, except among the patients belonging to the age group of 60–74 years in Iran, where cancer of the major salivary gland had the highest frequency. Both men and women were susceptible for cancers of the head and the neck in the age range of 60–74 years in Iran, whereas in Australia, it was more frequent among men belonging to the age range of 45–59 years and in women above the age of 75 years. Conclusion: This preliminary study defined differences in orofacial malignancy between Iran and Australia. Further studies in countries with different socioeconomic status are recommended.
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Tensile bond strength of facial silicone and acrylic resin using different primers p. 48
Sasiwimol Sanohkan, Boonlert Kukiattrakoon, Chaimongkon Peampring
Aim: To evaluate the tensile bond strength between Silastic MDX 4-4210 silicone and autopolymerizing acrylic resin (Orthojet) with two facial silicone primers (A306 and A330-G) and three primers used for silicone-based intraoral reliner materials [Sofreliner tough primer (ST); Mucosoft bond liner primer (ML); and Mucopren adhesive (MA)]. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens were divided into six groups according to the primers used to attach the facial silicone to the acrylic resin. All specimens were loaded in tension mode in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min until bonding failure occurred. Results: The highest bond strength values were found in the ST group (1.42 ± 0.24 MPa) followed by the MA group (1.39 ± 0.20 MPa) and the ML group (1.32 ± 0.24 MPa), which were significantly different from the A330-G group (1.12 ± 0.10 MPa), A306 group (0.69 ± 0.0.11 MPa), and the control group (0.18 ± 0.08 MPa). The mode of failure for all specimens was found to be adhesive failure at the facial silicone and bonding agent interface. Conclusion: This study suggests that silicone-based intraoral reliner materials can be used as facial silicone primers.
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Applicability of Moyers' and Tanaka–Johnston's mixed dentition analyses for predicting canine and premolar widths in south Indian population - A cross sectional study p. 52
Rekhalakshmi Kamatham, Kalasandhya Vanjari, Sivakumar Nuvvula
Aim: To test the applicability of Moyers’ and Tanaka–Johnston’s (TJ) mixed dentition analyses in predicting canines (C) and premolars (Ps) dimensions in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 boys and 101 girls in the age range of 11–15 years were recruited into the study. Maxillary and mandibular arch impressions were made and poured with dental stone. The maximum mesio-distal widths of mandibular central and lateral incisors, maxillary and mandibular C and Ps were measured. The predicted values of C and Ps obtained using Moyers’ and TJ methods were correlated and compared with the actual tooth sizes using Pearson correlation test and paired t test, respectively. Results: Moderate positive correlations were observed between the actual measurements and the predicted values obtained using both TJ and Moyers’ methods, irrespective of the gender. However, the validity, as tested using paired t test showed no applicability of TJ and Moyers’ (35 and 75%) methods. On the other hand, Moyers’ 50% was applicable for both the arches in boys and 65% for girls only in the maxillary arch. Conclusion: TJ and Moyers’ methods cannot be applied in the present population (Southeast India); hence, population adjusted regression equations have to be formulated.
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Use of cone-beam computed tomography in diagnosing and treating endodontic treatment failure: A case study p. 58
Gloria Lee, John Lankalis, Katrin Tamari, Steven R Singer
The use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a complementary imaging modality applies to various clinical situations that with conventional two-dimensional radiographs alone may pose diagnostic challenges. These challenges include but are not limited to locating missed canals in endodontic retreatment and diagnosing the presence of lesions such as resorption, periapical bone defects, root fractures, and perforations. In this study, we present a case of an asymptomatic apical periodontitis that was incidentally found on a panoramic radiograph. Analyses based on panoramic and periapical radiographs and clinical examinations were insufficient for definitive diagnosis, which necessitated the use of CBCT. The CBCT scan allowed identification of the cause of the apical disease, an unfilled mesiolingual canal in previously root canal treated left mandibular second molar, as well as the extent of the lesion. We also explore the diagnostic challenges in using traditional two-dimensional radiographs only, the challenges in locating root canals in mandibular second molars, and risks and benefits in using CBCT.
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Alternative treatment for complicated crown fracture p. 63
Tahir Yusuf Noorani, Yasir Dilshad Siddiqu
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Unusual presentation of a traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia p. 64
Treville Pereira, Subraj Shetty, Svylvy Pereira
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