|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 27-32
Aquolab ® ozone-therapy is an efficient adjuvant in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A case-control study
Francesco Carinci1, Annalisa Palmieri2, Ambra Girardi2, Francesca Cura3, Dorina Lauritano4
1 Chief of School of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
2 Center of Molecular Genetics, CARISBO Foundation, Institute of Histology and General Embryology, School of Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
3 Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy
4 Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy
|Date of Web Publication||20-May-2015|
Dr. Dorina Lauritano
Department of Translational Medicine and Surgery, Centre of Neuroscience, University of Milan-Bicocca, Via Cadore 48, 20052 Monza, MB
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of supportive periodontal therapy (i.e., scaling and root planning [SRP]) alone versus Aquolab ® ozone therapy used in association with SRP in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in adult patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with a diagnosis of chronic periodontitis (40 localized chronic periodontitis sites) were enrolled. None of these patients have previously received any surgical or nonsurgical periodontal therapy and demonstrated radiographic evidence of moderate bone loss. Two nonadjacent sites in separate quadrants were selected in each patient to verify treatment efficacy (split-mouth design). Microbial analysis was analyzed at baseline and the 7 th day after treatment. SPSS program and paired simple statistic t-test were used to detect statistically significant differences. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction of Tannerella forsythia loading in sites treated with ozone therapy respect to those treated with SPR alone. A similar trend was obtained also for additional 5 species and for total bacterial loading (CBT). These results were obtained with a single local application of ozone therapy just after SPR and with a molecular control 7 th day after treatment. Conclusion : Aquolab ® ozone therapy in is effective in reducing the CBT in pockets of patients affected by periodontitis. It is an efficacy medical device to be used as adjuvant therapy to be added to SRP in the management of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis.
Keywords: Bone loss, ozone therapy, periodontitis, root planning, scaling
|How to cite this article:|
Carinci F, Palmieri A, Girardi A, Cura F, Lauritano D. Aquolab ® ozone-therapy is an efficient adjuvant in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A case-control study. J Orofac Sci 2015;7:27-32
|How to cite this URL:|
Carinci F, Palmieri A, Girardi A, Cura F, Lauritano D. Aquolab ® ozone-therapy is an efficient adjuvant in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A case-control study. J Orofac Sci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 7];7:27-32. Available from: http://www.jofs.in/text.asp?2015/7/1/27/157370
| Introduction|| |
Periodontal disease is one of the prevalent illnesses in the adult population. It is characterized by a symptom triad : t0 ooth mobility, foetor ex ore, gingival bleeding. If left untreated the disease can lead to tooth loss. Pathogenesis of the periodontal disease is multifactorial, and bacterial have a role.  The main pathogens implicated in periodontal disease are anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria of which the most aggressive were identified in the "red complex" group: Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Tannerella forsythia (TF), and Treponema denticola (TD).  Furthermore, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA), Fusobacterium nucleatum (FN), Campylobacter rectus (CR) have a prominent role as well as the total bacterial loading (CBT).
The aim of periodontal treatment is to eliminate the oral infection, and prevent the progression of the disease.  Many studies have demonstrated that the nonsurgical therapy including scaling and root planning (SRP) associated with a good level of oral hygiene can prevent the onset of periodontal disease and allow for proper maintenance of oral health. ,
Previous data about the effectiveness of ozone against periodontal pathogenic microorganisms are controversial. One study concluded that there were no significant differences in the effectiveness of aqueous or gaseous ozone compared with 2% chlorhexidine.  Another study showed that ozone has an antimicrobial effect equivalent to that of the Er:YAG laser.  Furthermore, irrigation with ozonized water as an adjunctive therapy to SRP produces no statistically significant benefit compared with SRP plus distilled water irrigation.  On the contrary, another study reported that ozone might be considered as an alternative management strategy for periodontitis treatment due to its powerful ability to inactivate microorganisms. 
Aim to the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone therapy (i.e., Aquolab ® , EB2C, Milan, Italy) used in association with SRP in chronic periodontitis treatment in adult patients.
Ozone (O 3 ) is a triatomic molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms and presents many applications in medicine and dentistry. O 3 can decrease bacterial, fungi, virus and protozoa loading. Its effects are antimicrobial, analgesic and bio-stimulants. Ozone allows a better oxygenation of tissues and promotes healing, increases cell energy by stimulating the Krebs cycle production of adenosine triphosphate, stimulates white blood cells and the immune system response production of cytokines, increases blood flow and the elasticity of erythrocytes.
Aquolab ® ozone therapy is minimally invasive and at the level of the oral cavity, has no side effects [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. ,
|Figure 1: Design of instrumentation used to deliver ozone to the oral cavity|
Click here to view
| Materials and Methods|| |
In the period, September to October 2014, 20 patients with a diagnosis of chronic periodontitis were randomly selected. Patients were enrolled if they have two sites located in separate quadrants which required periodontal treatment, in the age group of 35-55. Subjects have not received previously any surgical or nonsurgical periodontal therapy. The patients were excluded from the study if they meet any of the following criteria:
- A history of taking antibiotics or using antibacterial mouth rinses for past 6 months;
- Teeth with furcation involvement;
- Smoking, drug or alcohol abuse.
Subjects participating in the study volunteered will follow a detailed verbal description of the procedure and by signing consent forms.
A total of 20 patients (i.e., 40 sites) were selected and grouped into two categories : c0 ontrol and test (split-mouth design). The control group (20 sites) was treated with SRP without using Aquolab ® ozone therapy (control site). The test group (20 sites) was treated by SRP plus Aquolab ® ozone therapy (test site).
All patients underwent to SRP at the baseline measurement. Prior to SRP microbial analysis was performed in each selected site. Then SRP was done at both sites using manual scalers. After SRP, Aquolab ® ozone therapy (EB2C, Milan, Italy) was adjunct in the test site of each enrolled patient [Figure 3]. The treatment was delivered for 30 s with a concentration of dissolved ozone between 0.01 and 0.03 ppm (average 0.02 ppm). After 1-week, microbiological samples were collected again from both sites in each patient.
Aquolab ® ozone therapy did not have any side effects or discomfort or adverse reactions, nor immediate and after a week control time. No patient reported pain, burning, tingling sensation or numbness. The Aquolab ® ozone therapy was also tasteless and odorless.
For bacteria analysis, sites were isolated using cotton rolls. Sterile absorbable paper points (size 60) were used for the collection of subgingival samples and were immediately transferred to the microbiological laboratory for processing. AA PG, TF, TD FN, CR, and CBT were evaluated.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction
Probes oligonucleotides were designed basing on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences of the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD 16S rRNA RefSeq Version 10.1 Producer EB2C, Milan, Italy) counting 845 entries. All the sequences were aligned in order to find either consensus sequence or less conservate spots. Two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) runs were performed for each sample. The first reaction quantified the total amount of bacteria using two degenerate primers and a single probe matching a highly conserved sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. The second reaction detected and quantified all selected bacteria in two multiplex PCR. This reaction included a total of twelve primers and six probes that were highly specific for each specie. Oligonucleotide concentrations and PCR conditions were optimized to ensure sensitivity, specificity and no inhibitions in case of unbalanced target amounts. Absolute quantification assays were performed using the Applied Bio systems 7500 Sequence Detection System. The amplification profile were initiated by a 10 min incubation period at 95°C to activate polymerase, followed by a two-step amplification of 15 s at 95°C and 60 s at 57°C for 40 cycles. All these experiments were performed including no template controls to exclude reagents contamination.
Plasmids containing synthetic DNA target sequences (Eurofin MWG Operon, Ebersberg Germany) were used as standard for the quantitative analysis. Standard curves for each target were constructed in two triplex reactions, using a mix of the same amount of plasmids, in serial dilutions ranging from 101 to 107 copies. There was a linear relationship between the threshold cycle values plotted against the log of the copy number over the entire range of dilutions (data not shown). The copy numbers of individual plasmid preparations was estimated using the Thermo NanoDrop spectrophotometer.
The absolute quantification of total bacterial genome copies in samples allowed for the calculation of the relative amount of red complex species. To prevent samples and PCR contamination, plasmid purification and handling was performed in a separate laboratory with dedicated pipettes.
SPSS program and paired simple statistic t-test were used to detect statistical significant differences.
| Results|| |
[Table 1] and [Table 2] report results obtained in 560 reactions. The suffix C indicates the control side whereas S the treated side. Zero (i.e., 0) is the pretreatment assessment whereas 1 is the control performed 1-week after a single application. Therefore in the case of the evaluation of single bacteria (such as AA) will have four possibilities: AAC0-bacterial loading of pretreatment control site, AASO-bacterial loading of pretreatment test site, AAC1-bacterial loading aftercare control site and AAS1-bacterial loading after Aquolab ® ozone therapy.
Tables reported the following evaluations:
- AACO versus AAC1-verification of standard therapy without Aquolab ® ;
- AASO versus AAS1-checking effectiveness standard therapy plus Aquolab ® ;
- AACO versus AASO-verification if there is any statistically significant difference between test and control side before any therapy Aquolab ® (which could distort the final result);
- AAC1 versus the AAS1-checking impact of adjunct of Aquolab ® to standard treatment.
Only TFS0-TFS1 (i.e., comparison between pre- and posttreatment loading values of TF) reached statistical significance (P = 0.021) thus demonstrating that a single application of Aquolab ® is effective to reduce the loading of TF in periodontal pockets.
Even if all the remaining comparisons did not reach the statistical significance, in all interaction between controls versus test site there was always a better P values in test site, which mean that Aquolab ® has a detectable positive effect on bacteria. In fact, in [Table 2], P values of control site (C) before and after treatment-that is Pair 8 (0.330), Pair 10 (0.254), Pair 12 (0.408), Pair 14 (0.195), Pair 16 (0.390), Pair 18 (0.407) and Pair 20 (0.240)-are always higher than the test site (S)-Pair 9 (0.167), Pair 11 (0.234), Pair 13 (0.211), Pair 15 (0.092), Pair 17 (0.195), Pair 19 (0.078) and Pair 21 (0.021), respectively.
In [Table 2], Pair 1-7 are not statistically significant that means that there was the difference in the test and control site before treatment. Pair 22-28 demonstrated that there was also no difference between test and control site after treatment, which means that average bacterial loading in the periodontal pocket was homogeneous at the end of the observation period.
| Discussion|| |
In our study only, TFS0-TFS1 reached statistical significance thus showing that Aquolab ® is effective in treating at least one bacterial agent involved in periodontal disease. In addition, all P values detected in test site were lower than those detected in the control site thus showing a general trend for all bacterial species. The fact that only TFS0-TFS1 reached statistical significance is probably related to the single application. If more applications will be delivered (for example one a day as it is for toothbrush), a greater reduction in bacterial loading could be detected. It is well understood that most destructive types of periodontal diseases occur due to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms colonizing the subgingival area and the suppression or eradication of these microbes result in improvement in periodontal health. Mechanical debridement is effective in both disturbing the biofilm and reducing the bacterial load. However, sometimes-mechanical instrumentation may not be sufficient to control the disease due to tissue invasive pathogens or other tooth-related anatomic factors. In such conditions, adjunctive use of Aquolab ® ozone therapy can provide an additional benefit in controlling the disease.
Support periodontal therapy is widely used, but a better effectiveness is demonstrated by the administration of ozone therapy in the association. The advantages of Aquolab ® ozone therapy involve the use of ozone directly into the periodontal pocket, minimizing the adverse effects related to systemic therapy.  The potential benefits of Aquolab ® ozone therapy include improved patient compliance and easier access to a periodontal pocket. Aquolab ® ozone therapy devices have been used either alone or as adjunct with SRP. Aquolab ® ozone therapy is administered directly into the periodontal pocket, and the effectiveness of this local therapy is related to their bactericidal activity and the subsequent reduction of gingival inflammation.
In contrast with adjuvant traditional periodontitis treatments, such as antibiotics and chemical devices, Aquolab ® ozone therapy is quite chip. The Aquolab ® ozone therapy is minimally invasive and has demonstrated to reduce bacterial loading.
The topical use of Aquolab ® ozone therapy along with mechanotherapy improves clinical results, and at the same time is free from adverse effects. Local ozone therapy into the pocket achieves a greater reduction of bacterial loading, proving bactericidal for most periopathogens.
Within the limitations of the current study, due to limited sample, we evaluated the efficacy of ozone therapy in the management of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis. The results of this investigation demonstrated an overall improvement in specific CBT.
Microbiological testing was thought appropriate to evaluate the effect of ozone therapy on subgingival microbial population, the primary etiological factor for periodontitis. Several methods have been used for microbiological testing in periodontitis.  It is well-known that both PG and TD occur concomitantly with the clinical signs of periodontal destruction. , They appear closely "linked" topologically in the developing biofilm, shown an in vitro ability to produce a number of outer membrane-associated proteinases. They are considered the first pathogens involved in the clinical destruction of periodontal tissues. Moreover, both them and TF, show a higher prevalence in disease than in health suggesting that these bacterial are associated with the local development of periodontitis.  Our results were able to detect a statistical significant effect on TF. It is possible that higher concentration and more local application could have a wider effect on the additional component of red complex triad. Additional studies are needed to proof this last point. As previously mentioned, the limitation of the study is related to the single application. A further study involving a larger number of patients using Aquolab ® everyday as a home care tool will aid to demonstrate the real efficacy of this complementary therapy.
| Conclusion|| |
Aquolab ® ozone therapy is an effective adjuvant therapy which should be added to SRP in the management of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis.
| References|| |
Haffajee AD, Socransky SS. Microbial etiological agents of destructive periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000 1994;5:78-111.
Heitz-Mayfield LJ. Disease progression: Identification of high-risk groups and individuals for periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 2005;32 Suppl 6:196-209.
Research, Science and Therapy Committee of American Academy of Periodontology. Informational paper: Implications of genetic technology for the management of periodontal diseases. J Periodontol 2005;76:850-7.
Greenstein G. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy in 2000: A literature review. J Am Dent Assoc 2000;131:1580-92.
Rams TE, Slots J. Local delivery of antimicrobial agents in the periodontal pocket. Periodontol 2000 1996;10:139-59.
Huth KC, Quirling M, Lenzke S, Paschos E, Kamereck K, Brand K, et al.
Effectiveness of ozone against periodontal pathogenic microorganisms. Eur J Oral Sci 2011;119:204-10.
Yilmaz S, Algan S, Gursoy H, Noyan U, Kuru BE, Kadir T. Evaluation of the clinical and antimicrobial effects of the Er:YAG laser or topical gaseous ozone as adjuncts to initial periodontal therapy. Photomed Laser Surg 2013;31:293-8.
Al Habashneh R, Alsalman W, Khader Y. Ozone as an adjunct to conventional nonsurgical therapy in chronic periodontitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontal Res 2015;50:37-43.
Kshitish D, Laxman VK. The use of ozonated water and 0.2% chlorhexidine in the treatment of periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiologic study. Indian J Dent Res 2010;21:341-8.
Bocci VA. Scientific and medical aspects of ozone therapy. State of the art. Arch Med Res 2006;37:425-35.
Nogales CG, Ferrari PH, Kantorovich EO, Lage-Marques JL. Ozone therapy in medicine and dentistry. J Contemp Dent Pract 2008;9:75-84.
Loomer PM. Microbiological diagnostic testing in the treatment of periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000 2004;34:49-56.
Mineoka T, Awano S, Rikimaru T, Kurata H, Yoshida A, Ansai T, et al
. Site-specific development of periodontal disease is associated with increased levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis
, Treponema denticola
, and Tannerella forsythia
in subgingival plaque. J Periodontol 2008;79:670-6.
Scapoli L, Girardi A, Palmieri A, Testori T, Zuffetti F, Monguzzi R, et al.
Microflora and periodontal disease. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012;9 Suppl 2:S202-6.
Carinci F, Girardi A, Palmieri A, Martinelli M, Scapoli L, Avantaggiato A, et al
. Lab-test 2: Microflora and periodontal disease. Eur J Inflamm 2012;10:95-8.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2]